The armistice of November 11, 1918 marks the end of a terrible butchery. Europe is exiled and ruined. The victorious allies render Germany the sole culprit and debtor of this war. The Treaty of Versailles drove the nail by cutting the German empire into several territories which are occupied and placed under French administration by the League of Nations: first the French public mines of the Saar (1920) are attributed to France, who controls and exploits the coal field until the annexation of the Saarland to Germany in 1935. Then the territory of Memel (1922) is separated from Germany against the wishes of its inhabitants and administered by a High Commission responsible for managing the territory on behalf of the Allies ... until the annexation of the region in 1924 within Lithuania. Finally, the Rhineland, border region of France, is demilitarized, then occupied from 1923 and placed under the authority of the "High Commission interallied of the Rhenish Territories" which created the Franco-Belgian Railways Administration in Occupied German Territory (R.C.F.T.O).