Mauritania (in Arabic: موريتانيا, in Berber: Agawej or Cengiṭ) is a country in West Africa. Its name comes from Roman Mauretania which in Antiquity designated the territory of the Berber people of the “Moors”. The country has rectilinear borders (1) with Algeria to the north-northeast, the territory of Western Sahara to the north, Mali to the east and south-south-east and Senegal, delimited by the single border that constitutes the Senegal River. The Sahara occupies two thirds of the national territory with consequently a low population density.
Historically, the region was placed under French colonial influence between 1903 and 1960, the year of the country's independence which became the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The new Constitution establishes a presidential-type regime and Moktar Ould Daddah becomes its first president. Today, half of its population still makes a living from agriculture and breeding. Coastal fishing and iron mining constitute the country's main income. In 2016, Mauritania was ranked 155th out of 182 countries in terms of human development (2).
The Central Bank of Mauritania (CBM; in Arabic: البنك المركزي الموريتاني) was created in 1973. The ouguiya-MRO (from the Arabic wqiya which means ounce) is the official currency. The first issue of banknotes dates from 1973 and is printed in Algeria by the Imprimerie La Typo-Litho J. Carbonel (ITLC). Four issues followed one another between 1974 and 2015, all produced by the German company Giesecke & Devrient.
But little by little the money supply circulating in the country becomes unbearable with about 608 billion ouguiya. In 2017, a new monetary standard is set at a rate of 1 for 10 ouguiyas and the ouguiya-MRO is then replaced by the ouguiya-MRU. This change entails the creation of a whole new range of 5 banknotes of 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 ouguiya comprising the most recent security signs developed with the help of the company CCL Secure and printed in a material to polymer base by Canadian Bank Note Company ...
(1) The borders are established arbitrarily by the French colonial power.
(2) Calculated by the Human Development Index (HDI).